Management of surface water quality

Surface waters such as streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, seas, oceans are used for many activities such as drinking, irrigation, industries and recreation. At the same time, these water bodies are used as a receiving media for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater of different sources such as urban, industrial and agriculture. Additionally, these water bodies receive polluted water from the runoff of storm water and agricultural drainage water. As a result, the water becomes polluted and unsuitable for its usage. Accordingly, management of the quality of surface water is important to maintain different beneficial uses of this important water resource.

Proper wastewater treatment and disposal is on the basis of surface water quality management. Additionally, best agricultural practices and codes should be applied to reduce pollution from agriculture to water bodies. International, regional, national and local cooperation and coordination is required for the integrated and sustainable management of surface water quality.